(urth) Flaubert's _The Temptation of Saint Anthony_ as influence on_New Sun_?

Gwern Branwen gwern at gwern.net
Thu Apr 18 09:02:41 PDT 2013

On Thu, Apr 18, 2013 at 10:43 AM, David Stockhoff
<dstockhoff at verizon.net> wrote:
> Speaking of borrowed words, does anyone know of an earlier use of the term
> "autarch" than by James Blish in his Cities in Flight novels? or, for that
> matter, any other use?

It's surprisingly rare:

A direct Google Books search from 1/1/1700 to 1/1/1950 turns up (
), after eliminating obvious duplicates, 17 results (archive of
results: https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/85192141/2013-googlebooks-autarch.html.maff

1. The Edinburgh Review of Critical Journal October 1824...January
1825 - Page 334 books.google.com/books?id=WmIJAAAAQAAJ

    > A Frank having made certain acquisitions, may be raised to the
rank of Autarch. The election lies with the ... An Autarch, in
addition to the rights of the Veteran Frank, is privileged from all
fines ; but he receives no reward. The institution of ...
2. The Edinburgh Review: Or Critical Journal - Volume 17 - Page 316;
Sydney Smith, Lord Francis Jeffrey Jeffrey, Macvey Napier - 1810

    > Hence, one of his S^nfcrit nanus, Vrifhndw.ija, li^nifyinj —
whofe enfign is a bull. "Autarch informs uj, that ' iNilum pattern ac
fervatorem fu-x re- iJ 4 gicuis, * gionis, ac defluxum Ofiridis
nominant. ' The Ganges in. Moor's Hindu Pantheon..."
3. Public education: plans for the government and liberal instruction
... - Page 56 Arthur Hill (teacher.) - 1825

    > made certain acquisitions, may be raised to the rank of autarch.
The election lies with the conference, the committee, and the previous
autarchs, either of which bodies has a veto. An autarch, in addition
to the rights of the veteran frank, ...
4. History of Greece - Volume 1 - Page 284
books.google.com/books?id=n3sLAAAAYAAJ George Grote - 1849

    > ... purified by reason, the aspect of history : in those cases
where it haughtily scorns plausibility and will admit no alliance with
what is probable, I shall beg for indulgent hearers, willing to
receive antique Autarch— narrative in a mild spirit2.
5. Alliteration: An alliterated allocution by the letter A against ...
- Page 22 books.google.com/books?id=ehIVAQAAMAAJ James Nelson Hulme -

    > Ynd Anglican aldermen and anarclials, A.nd arch-dukes, and
arch-priests, and admirals, Approving Ale, acquired an assuetude \lish
f and allowed Ale an amplitude About as ample as asks an autarch, 1
As-ttite ' , — Critically examining or ...
6. Catalog of Copyright Entries. New Series: 1934 - Part 1 - Page 32
books.google.com/books?id=raMhAQAAIAAJ Library of Congress. Copyright
Office - 1935
    > 31 Widmark, Lawrence Emil, 1889- An inquiry into the functioning
of an industrial autarch}', by Lawr. E. Widmark ... cNew York, Albert
Bonnier publishing house, c1934] 3 p. 1., 9-60 p. diagrs. 231cm. "Is
modern business mathematically ..."
7. Reflections on the rise and fall of the ancient republicks: ... -
Page 148 books.google.com/books?id=QE1WAAAAYAAJ Edward Wortley Montagu
- 1769

    > ... has handed down, to us a striking instance of this truth in
the case of Aristides, which is too remarkable i& be omitted. c When
Aristides was created Quæstor, or high Treasurer of Athens, he fairly
laid be- * Demades, according to Autarch, ...
8. The Voyage of François Pyrard of Laval to the East Indies, the ...
- Issue 76, Volume 1 - Page 404 books.google.com/books?id=x4EMAAAAIAAJ
François Pyrard, Pierre de Bergeron, Jérôme Bignon - 1887

    > These porches or Autarch in front of the houses are for
receiving passing strangers, both for giving them meat and drink, and
also a place to rest and sleep ; they take them not inside their
houses, so that they may depart during the night when ...
9. Lives, translated from the Greek, with notes critical and ... -
Volume 7 - Page 8 books.google.com/books?id=rFAMAAAAYAAJ Plutarch -

    > ... being ordered by the senate to repel force with force,
attacked him, killed several of his men, and lost some of his own. By
this action he forseited the favour of the people : Put this was not
the only thing that rendered him & autarch's LIVES.
10. The English portion of the library of the Ven. Francis Wrangham -
Page 315 books.google.com/books?id=AMURAAAAIAAJ Francis Wrangham -

    > See D'laraeli's autarch of Author/, and tit. Anecd. III. 887.
Two Copies only of this Collection were printed on T'ine Paper : of
which one was MM. at Dr. Farmer's Sale in it90, to Mr. Dent for 11.
16*. ; and the ottrer, his own present to Mr. Reed, ...
11. The Publishers' circular and general record of British and foreign
... - Volume 33 - Page 777 books.google.com/books?id=aWVWAAAAYAAJ 1870

    > ENGLISH WRITERS. Chapters for Self-Improvement in English
Literature. DTHER PEOPLES WINDOWS. By the Author of 'Gentle Life.'
the late A. H. Clougii.
12. The whole critical works of Monsieur Rapin ...: Newly done into
... - Page 398 books.google.com/books?id=UC1JAAAAMAAJ René Rapin,
Thomas Taylor, Thomas Rymer - 1706

    > His Know- autarch'' ren^re^ mra sensible of his Ignorance, and
de Doctr. his Ingenuity prompted him, without Ceremony, Epicur. to
confess it. Epicurus had good Talents of Nature, and was a Philosopher
in his very Pleasures : 'Tis a saying of ...
13. Niles' Weekly Register - Volume 15 - Page 225
books.google.com/books?id=q_IaAAAAYAAJ Hezekiah Niles, William Ogden
Niles - 1819

    > kiLkh, at t5 run am*um, patari.k in autarch. By th* assistance
of a supplement, arranged to jiriailt the present regular number, we
are enabled this week to dispose of the entire reports of Messrs.
HoBiirnnd Graham, on South- American affairs, ...
14. The European Magazine, and London Review - Volumes 61-62 - Page
210 books.google.com/books?id=NB8YAQAAIAAJ 1812

    > ... are of the exact species of writing of the Athente, critical
justice demands from us, that we should slate of what species they are
: and here we must refer their origin to a much more ancient prototype
than Anthony Woodi we mean, to Autarch, ...
15. Asiatic Journal - Volume 6 - Page 183
books.google.com/books?id=PBQLAQAAMAAJ 1831

    > We have lost Mr. Creus, the Spanish Consul, and Mr. Autarch!,
his interpreter. At Cairo the mortality was less severe. The
establishment of the Pacha, the regiments and manufacturers, have
suffered most. We huve also to regret the loss of ...
16. Cobbett's Political Register - Volume 10
books.google.com/books?id=iCM8AAAAIAAJ William Cobbett - 1806

    > It is only under autarch of triumph that you should return.
What! have , we braved the seasons, the seas, and the deserts ; have
we triumphed over Europe leagued against us ; have we borneour glory,
from Orient to the Setting Sun, only to ...
17. Hannah More - Page 76 books.google.com/books?id=8KwEAAAAYAAJ
Charlotte Mary Yonge - 1888

    > What little ornament there is I have bestowed, not injudiciously
I trow, on the slenderest part. You will find but one episode, and
even that does not obstruct the progress of the main subject ; and for
parallels, I will be bold to say Autarch does ...

We can see there's a lot of Greco-Roman context in the hits, and in
one or two it looks like some sort of error ('autarch of triumph'?) or
to be someone's name ('Mr. Autarch'). So overall, a very rare word


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